Archive for May 2015
In their recent Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences article about tenure-track hires, Williams and Ceci say:
A number of audits of hiring by universities have been reported in the past two decades and these have reported either a neutral playing field in non-mathematical fields . . . , or, more commonly, a pronounced female hiring advantage in math-intensive fields. . . . Here is what we know about the female advantage in real-world hiring of tenure-track applicants in STEM fields in the United States and Canada: There is a female advantage in all large-scale studies dating back to the 1980s. (SI Appendix, p. 26, emphasis added)
Williams and Ceci quantify “female preference” as the ratio of female hires to female applicants. However, they do not compute these ratios for the “audit studies” they cite. This post makes some of those computations.
Interestingly, three of the eight studies cited come from Canada, but some large-scale audit studies of United States universities are not mentioned. This post examines a few of the studies that could have been cited, finding that the claim above is not supported and offering an alternative explanation for the statistics in the US audit studies.
Update (August 2015): Ceci makes an assumption explicit (see comments section here and further discussion below).
Update (July 2015): The three Canadian studies concern hiring in the 1980s and 1990s. During this period, the gender distribution of Canadian faculty hires may have been affected by a “brain drain” to the United States. Studies note that PhDs were overrepresented among these migrants. What is known suggests that a very large proportion of these PhDs were male and among “the best and the brightest.” Thus, faculty hiring patterns in Canada and the United States may differ. Moreover, an exodus of men may be a factor in the apparent overrepresentation of women as hires in Canada. Further discussion is below.
Figure from Iqbal, M. (2000). Brain drain: Empirical evidence of emigration of Canadian professionals to the United States. Canadian Tax Journal, 48(3), 674–688.